What is REBELION? - rebelion image

REBELION is a project funded by the European Union with the objective of addressing the waste management challenges posed by lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) used in electric mobility. After their second life, recycling represents not only the most environmentally friendly alternative for batteries, but also a natural and economic resource since the raw materials contained in LIBs can be valorised for further manufacturing. This is particularly relevant in the EU, which is a net importer of critical raw materials while up to 40% of the EVs are sold in Europe. Therefore, a solid recycling industry can become the European mining equivalent, promoting both environmental and economic benefits to the EU region. 

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Objectives and

The overall goal of REBELION is to develop cutting-edge technologies to promote a circular model for LIBs for electric mobility, enabling feasible industrial practices in the coming years to maximise second-life applications and improve recycling efficiency.

This will require achieving the following specific technical objectives:

Electric noise analysis

Electric noise analysis technology validation for Li-Ion batteries

Automated testing

Automated testing and dismantling system for different battery formats

Safety protocol

A safety protocol for every step of the value chain

Battery labeling system

Development of standardised battery labelling system

Circular models

Validation of the overall performance of the two proposed circular models

Results exploitation

A roadmap to the market for individual and joint exploitation of the results

Safe container development

Development of a safe container for storage and transportation

REBELION aims to improve battery technology for efficiency and safety. They’re using blockchain for a digital battery passport to provide data to recyclers and users. They’re also focused on safety procedures for handling used batteries in large quantities.

Within REBELION, thermal monitoring will be integrated, along with the development of an intelligent storage and transportation container equipped with thermal and gas sensing layers. These layers will monitor factors such as the limiting oxygen index and lower explosive limits, and a cooling system will activate when specific thresholds are exceeded.


REBELION will validate two different circular schemes – enabled by a disruptive fast battery testing based on electronic noise analysis – for the reuse of electric vehicle and light electric vehicle LIBs in electrical energy storage (EES) utility and domestic applications respectively, and later recycling.

The first circular chain

Designed for used EV batteries

1. Sorting EV packs

A circular chain for used EV batteries begins by collecting and sorting EV packs into homogeneous sets, which are tagged for reconfiguration (Step 1).

2. Dismantle of packs

Packs are then dismantled into modules at REBELION’s robot line (Step 2).

3. Modules' state of health

Modules are tested and sorted based on their state of health (SoH) for reuse or recycling (Step 3).

4. Modules' transfer

Suitable modules are transferred to the retrofitting section, discharged, and stored in smart containers for future use (Step 4).

5. Dismantling and recycling

End-of-life modules are transported with a smart container to facilities for dismantling and recycling (Step 5 and 6).

In this process, monitoring with embedded thermal cameras, gas detectors, and a cooling system ensures safe storage and transport. Modules unsuitable for reuse undergo automated sub-cell dismantling, eliminating the need for mechanical and pyrolysis processes. Before recycling, batteries are fully discharged, and the released electric energy is stored in an EES. All batteries collected follow a readable Digital Battery Passport, allowing traceable histories.

The second circular chain

Designed to recycle lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) from light electric vehicles

This chain, emerging from REBELION, will accommodate a sustainable pathway for the used LIBs obtained from light electric vehicles (e-bikes, e-scooters). After sorting, modules are automatically dismantled into cells, tested and sorted. Suitable cells are reused for domestic purposes, while the rest are recycled. The success of these processes hinges on the project’s technologies, such as ENA testing, autonomous robots, and smart containers.

diagnosis of li-ion
cells and modules

REBELION introduces Electrochemical Noise Analysis (ENA), a quick and cost-effective diagnostic method. ENA decomposes voltage noise signals under constant current, yielding distinct patterns for battery health. We’ll enhance it with current interruption (CI) for deeper insights. REBELION also develops automation for battery sorting, diagnosis, and disassembly.

The project will develop a diagnostic protocol and a corresponding device for li-ion cells and modules. This protocol will distinguish between cells/modules suitable for a second life and those at their end of life, requiring disassembly for recycling.

Additionally, REBELION’s diagnostic protocol will sort li-ion cells/modules into four categories based on their state of health (SoH):

Minimal ageing

Cells/modules with minimal ageing, suitable for reuse or second-life applications in high-performance devices.

Minimal ageing

Moderate ageing

Cells/modules with moderate ageing, still viable for their original task or medium-performance second-life applications.

Moderate ageing

Significant ageing

Cells/modules with significant ageing, suitable for second-life use in low-performance devices.

Significant ageing

Severe aging

Cells/modules with severe aging, unsuitable for reuse and requiring disassembly for component recycling.

Severe aging

ICT platform and
labelling - the use
of blockchain

REBELION will establish an information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure for battery labelling using digital battery passports (DBP) and eco-labels. This system will be underpinned by blockchain technology to facilitate the project’s smooth operation, ensuring access to necessary data and technical information.

The battery labelling system will serve two key purposes:

Tracking second-life battery

It will assist stakeholders in efficiently tracking second-life battery information throughout its lifecycle, allowing for screening, repair, and component replacement.

Empower battery users

It will empower battery users with access to battery information, aligning with the circular economy action plan’s objectives.



Achieving circular economy goals through second life batteries, accelerating rollout of circular designs and holistic circular approach for funded innovation


Revitalize recycling with world-leading automation, creating a recycling value chain community among stakeholders, and developing an innovative recycling network and technologies


Improve safety, through automatisation and reducing accidents

Boosting European competitiveness

Boosting the global competitiveness of the European battery ecosystem through advanced knowledge and technologies in battery materials

Sustainability and improved LCA

REBELION drives accelerated growth in Europe’s sustainable battery manufacturing industry, translating project outcomes into green industrial practices.